Inside the global Quest trace the origins of COVID-19 and predict where is Next

Inside the global Quest trace the origins of COVID-19 and predict where is Next

It was not greed or curiosity Rusheng that Li did grab the gun and Shitou Cave one. It was a matter of survival. During the Mao era collectivization of the early 1970s, the food was so scarce in the emerald valleys in southwest China’s Yunnan Province that farmers like Li could expect to eat meat only once a year, if they are lucky . Thus, the protein Desire, Li and his friends would hide in the cave, the creatures hunt could hear them squeaking and fluttering inside: bats. He would crawl into the dark and fire blindly the vaulted ceiling, each record quarry fell to the ground, while his companions networks over the entrance of the cave to trap bats in flight instead. They cooked in the traditional way of Yunnan Yi ethnic people: boiled for hair removal and skin, gutted and fried. “It would be little fat,” said Li, now 81, sat on a wall fields of tobacco plants that look. “The meat is very tender. But now I have not been more than 30 years in the cave,” he added, shaking his head sadly. “They were very hard times.” China today brings little resemblance to the impoverished nation of them young people. Since the market reforms of Deng Xiaoping in 1979 believed that the Kingdom of strength in Middle-force is gone. Today’s number two economy and the world’s top trading nation. It has a total of more billionaires than the US driving and high speed than the rest of the world. Under the strong current President Xi Jinping, China began a campaign to bring “the central place of the world.” Farmers like Li no longer survive on bats hunt. This does not mean Pales Shitou Cave of meaning. Today, however, the depth of mold do not speak the local food, but the overall risk. Shitou was where Zhengli Shi, senior scientist at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV), working with bat droppings samples in 2011 and 2012, a new virus isolated that SARS was very similar to that responsible for a decade pandemic used to be. Shi known as “bat woman” of China for his tireless research on the winged mammals warned that another bat-transmitted diseases can easily fall back into human populations. Seven years later, their fears appear rehabilitated. In Shi February document showed the discovery of what they called the “closest” relative to what would become known as SARS-CoV-2, which causes the COVID-19 crown is also produced in a colony of bats just 90 miles from Shitou Cave. Synchronized RaTG13, Shi-virus has a 96.2% similarity with the virus, which has claimed some 600,000 lives around the world, including more than 140,000 shows to the US discovery Shi COVID-19 probably originated in bats, as do rabies, Ebola, SARS, MERS, Nipah and other lethal virus. But how can the virus traveling from a bat colony in the city of Wuhan, where the crown of the outbreak was first documented? And from there, as he did creeps silently along highways and nurses routes in Italy, killing the peasants in Brazil, retirees in Seattle? As the virus has entered the human population to donate such a devastating toll is the most important issue of global scientific interest today. The search for “patient zero” -o “index case”, the first human COVID-19 infection problems. Not because any error or fault of this person, but because to find out how the pathogen has entered the human population, and tracing how flourished, science and public health communities will help to better understand the pandemic and how to prevent similar or worse in the future. Add to this the millions of lives in the balance, Cambridge University puts at $82 Katherine over 5 years the cost to the global economy from the current pandemic come. Humanity can barely afford another. The origin of COVID-19 is not just a scientific question. The Trump administration with regard to him as a club policy against Beijing. Since the United States to control outbreaks of the Crown and its founder economy, President Donald Trump blame on China could not distracted. Trump and senior government figures called COVID-19 “China virus” and “virus Wuhan.” Secretary Mike Pompeo said there was “terrible ordeal” was the Shi laboratory virus had fled to the city. (He does not need to share any concrete evidence.) “This is the worst attack we have ever had on our country. This is worse than Pearl Harbor. This is worse than the World Trade Center,” he said the pandemic said Trump in May, point the finger at China. In response, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi has accused the US president is looking for a “new Cold War” fans “lies and conspiracy theories.” The origin of the virus is clearly a sensitive issue. However, the world needs urgently cut. Australia and E.U. Washington Calls for a thorough investigation into the causes of the connected blast. Under the supervision of the World Health Organization on May 18, has the print Xi “of scientists support the source and transmission of viruses around the world global research” to express. But Trump has already accused the WHO of “China centric” to be and promised to stop funding. His attacks may have some basis in fact. The state organization manageable Taiwan denied the same observers under Beijing’s pressure. And private, which officials have been frustrated by the slow release of information by the Chinese authorities, although publicly praised their transparency with transcripts obtained by The Associated Press. Partisan bickering and nationalism of valuable scientific work threaten kept to the shadows are the real source to find the virus. Time is of the essence; a vaccine against SARS was at hand, if the search that may have proved invaluable today was set as the crisis eased. “As soon settles this pandemic, we will have a small window of opportunity to prevent rather than the infrastructure to make it happen again,” says Dr. Maureen Miller, an epidemiologist at Columbia University. The search for the origin of the virus must be behind the squat blue shutters cabins start at fish market Wuhan Huanan where we know that a viral pneumonia outbreak now as COVID-19 was first discovered in mid-December. One of the first cases was a trader named Guixian Wei, 57, who worked every day on the market, shrimp from huge buckets for sale. In mid-December fever that he thought had developed seasonal influenza, said the paper state based in Shanghai. A week later he was drifting in and out of consciousness in a hospital ward. Of the first 41 patients in Wuhan hospital, 13 had no connection with the market, including the first recorded case. That does not necessarily relieve the market as zoonotic of jump starting point, though-we still do not know for sure how many COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic, but research suggests that it could be as high as 80%. And although the market was not Huanan where the first people infected virus, it certainly played an important role as an incubator of transmission. In a press conference on January 26, the Hong Kong Center for Health Protection unveiled taken 33 of the 585 environmental samples after the market was closed on January 1 tested positive for the virus. Of these, 31 were taken in the west, where they were sold wildlife. In May, China stepped up calls for an independent investigation, after more than 100 countries of the decision E.U. However designed supports President Xi insists must-looking to be “global” not only in China, but also as other nations of the WHO responded warnings and may not begin until after the pandemic has subsided. “To follow the principles of objectivity and fairness need,” Xi told the World Health Assembly. (It is noteworthy studies on the 2009 H1N1 “swine flu” pandemic and 2014 Ebola outbreak began in West Africa before the crisis had subsided.) Are previous protocols studies after the teams of public health experts independent and former staff that the appointed based on recommendations Member States. On a practical level, however each probe in China relies on the cooperation of Beijing, and it is uncertain whether the United States will accept the results of a body to slam Trump has “difficult to cover and mismanagement, the spread of the crown.” Peter Ben Embarek, food safety and animal diseases expert at WHO, says a study on interviews with all of the first cases have to focus and try to find evidence of possible previous infections among relatives, their contacts, and where they were the day and weeks before becoming ill. In addition, hunters and farmers who delivered animal species. “With you can do,” a little ‘luck and good epidemiological work, he says. There are many who look at where it emerged COVID-19 and see something that can not be just a coincidence. be marked in 2017 China first Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory of the highest level also cleared to work with air pathogens that are not known vaccines-in has Wuhan. Since then, the country has the leading expert in bat viruses were hard work of wrinkled gray building of WIV. In fact, when Shi first heard about the outbreak, he thought: “They could have come from our laboratory,” he said recently in Scientific American. An inventory of virus samples assured her that he had not, he added, but that has not stopped to keep some of their suspicions. Mistakes happen. The last known case of smallpox from a laboratory U. K. leaked 1,978 SARS has expired at least two occasions by Chinese laboratories, while the US scientists to be responsible for mishandlings various pathogens, including Ebola. There are only about 70 BSL-4 laboratories in 30 countries. The suspicion with regard to the type of search being performed in the laboratory Wuhan persist. After a leading virologist who remain anonymous “they wanted for fear of funding and professional relationships to compromise, ask me where is the most likely place in the world to escape a crown bat in nature to a laboratory, Wuhan would be in the Top 10.” yet neither the wHO nor the Five eyes intelligence network which includes the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand has found evidence that COVID-19 originated from Shi laboratory. Canberra has also distanced itself from a US dossier drawn up, which tried to convince the Australian public that the network intelligence of five of the eyes had a Chinese cover-up. (E ‘appeared exclusively on open source material to leave.) Meanwhile, fellow scientists gather to defend Shi suspicious. “All of you should be a senior scientist,” says Miller, who worked with Shi various studies. The Wuhan Institute of Virology has not responded to requests for comment. There are COVID-19 tests went from wild animals to humans. Tracing just as crucial. It allows governments to install safeguards in terms of animal husbandry and butchery to prevent recurrence. SARS, for example, originated in bats and then infected a Palm Civet, a feline mammal native of South and Southeast Asia. The animal was then in a wet market where the sale of fresh meat, fish and sometimes livestock for sale in Guangdong, from where he jumped to people. During this outbreak, at least 774 lives worldwide claims Palm civets was banned from sale or consumption in China. The bats can have the initial reservoir for SARS-CoV-2, but it is likely that it was an intermediary, before it comes to human beings, and that’s where the opportunities are growing. Quote Shitou Cave bats with starlings, for one, and at least a big nest White Owl In its upper reaches. Herds of goats graze in the bush white and black powder around the opening of the cave, while the traditionally consumed Yi ethnic group back and dogs. Please Guano is also traditionally prized as fertilizer on crops. Only a few miles from Shitou, customers Baofeng Horse Meat restaurant perched on round tables, poured from a huge green brass teapots sipping tea, while Koehler cook the same next section Dogmeat and other specialties. “All the animals that we sell are the neighbors,” says the owner Wang Tao. cultural practices and vectors of transmission diseases are often intertwined. MERS continue to jump on the Arabian peninsula between the camels and their human handlers. China is eating preference for rare and unusual wildlife to obscure health benefits for current pandemic contributed. While many aspects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are completely benign, where little more than massage, pressure points and bitter herbs, there is a fetishization of exotic animals, and there is no evidence that TCM could when introducing the role of I played a pandemic. The domain that binds the receptor of SARS-CoV protein spike 2 uses the virus to bind to mount on the hosts unusually adept at human cells. there was only a first for Malaysian pangolins discovered viruses have the same receptor binding have shown. “Some features of [SARS-CoV-2], which may have initially looked unusual, are now found in nature,” says Edward Holmes, an evolutionary biologist and virologist at the University of Sydney. The COVID-19 originated in bats and then jumped to humans through a pangolin agent is now the most likely scenario, according to several studies (although some virologists disagree). Up to 2.7 million of scaly mammals were plucked for consumption, particularly in China from the wild in Asia and Africa, where many people believe that their scales treat everything from inflammation rheumatoid arthritis. Their meat is known for its alleged health benefits also greatly appreciated. On February 24, China announced a permanent ban on wildlife consumption and trade, scratching a sector, employing 14 million people and a value of $74 billion, given to a 2017 report by the Chinese Academy of Engineering in order. And ‘once again extremely sensitive. President Xi is an ardent supporter of TCM and promoted its use globally. The total value of TCM industry in China was estimated at $420 billion dollars to achieve by the end of this year, according to a 2016 White Paper on China’s State Council. And instead of increasing the possibility that the Chinese state media MTC abuse have triggered the outbreak praised without proof of TCM “crucial role” in treating patients COVID-19 play. In an apparent attempt to criticism, the head of its pandemic bill was the end of May has published any individual or organization to ban “defamation” or “false or exaggerated claims” about TCM. Crack down on the illegal pet trade down would go a long way toward preventing future outbreaks. But as the demand for meat in Asia is growing increasingly wealthy, Africa and Latin America to overflowing the potential for viruses in the human population will only increase. Was it blind luck that Li and his friends do not get sick from their hunts in Shitou Cave. Research from Columbia Miller with WIV Shi, was published in 2017, found that the local people for SARS-like viruses were naturally resistant. Examine their habits and antibodies can both help mitigating factors to infer and possible therapies, while the identification of the virus are particularly vulnerable infect people who can design scientists vaccines in advance. “They are the canaries in the coal mine,” says Miller. The cloud of uncertainty surrounding the origin of the virus, can never increase. Identification of an individual “patient zero” where the jump virus can be made from animal to man made with his remarkable ability to spread during asymptomatic impossible. But equally important is the discovery of the larger map of how the virus spreads and GM, as it did. In theory that a form of genetic surveillance, the development of broad-spectrum anti-viral vaccines and promote that prove effective against future new outbreaks. The study of anatomy virus that can pass easily between species, also help to predict where the next pandemic comes from, and prepare for the inevitable next time. So it has its 40-strong team of infectious disease rescuers to Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Washington. The first time was part of a routine monthly test alarm. This time it was the real thing. Around 09:00 on January 20, called Dr. George Diaz pager for the second time that day. So it has its 40-strong team of infectious disease rescuers to Providence Regional Medical Center Everett, Washington. The first time was part of a routine monthly test alarm. This time it was the real thing. The page indicates the case of the United States first confirmed COVID-19 The patient was a resident, one of Washington State who had recently returned from a family visit in Wuhan, where the spread of the disease quickly. And worried Conscious of its higher risk if you develop a fever, the 35-year-old (who wishes to remain anonymous) attended an emergency place where said health care providers for their travel history. She informed the state health department, which in turn send a sample, the health center, the only COVID-19 testing laboratories are run helped Test Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of Atlanta right now. If the test is positive, the CDC scientists recommend that the patient be hospitalized for observation. And Diaz teams has been outsourced. A trained paramedics arrived at the house of a man, pulled him in a unit cell isolation specially designed and driven 20 minutes to the regional Providence. There, the patient could not see who welcomed him; each to his care has been assigned dress webs of personal protective equipment. Once in his room, he talked with the medical staff only from a tele-health-robot equipped with a screen that displays their faces transferred directly from the room. A nurse gently stroked the back of the nose and throat for a sample of the virus that had brought him to the hospital. It ‘been genetically sequenced not only the first confirmed case of COVID-19 in the US, was also the first in the country have viruses. Because the index patient (1 Washington), served in the United States called his WA1 sequence as the seed from which the experts ultimately the genetic tree describes SARS-CoV-2 from person to person the way through the community, countries and the world track as it would have mutated and become extinct or moved forward with renewed vigor and more people to infect. Genetic sequencing is a powerful tool to fight viruses preference changed. Viruses are exploitative and ruthless; They do not even reproduce invest the effort in each of its machines. Instead, they rely on to host cells, but at a price. This copy is sloppy, and often leads to mistakes or mutations. But viruses can sometimes this advantage; Some mutations can make the most effective virus host randomly guest unnoticed for the spread. SARS-CoV-2 appears to have landed on at least that a series of genetic mutations, as they are also infected with the virus spread if they have no symptoms. Understand how to map these changes is a relatively new science. Following the 2014 West African Ebola outbreak, scientists have mapped the genome of about 1,600 virus samples collected from the start of the outbreak and about 5% of all cases. The work has provided insights on how Ebola moved between positions and mute. But it was not published until 2017 because most of the sequencing and data sharing was made after the peak of the disease, said Trevor Bedford, associate professor at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and co-founder of Nextstrain. org, an open-source database sequences of SARS-CoV-2 gene. With COVID-19, “everything happens much faster,” he says, making the information more immediately useful. Since the first genome of SARS-CoV-2 has been published and made available to the public online in scientists January the genomes of more than 70,000 (and counting) samples of the virus obtained from patients in China, the United States, the European Union, Brazil and South Africa mapped, among others. They took these sequences in the Global Initiative to release all Influenza Data (GISAID), a public gene database in 2008, initially created to store and share flu genomes. During the crown pandemic it has quickly become a clearing house for the SARS-CoV-2 genetic swung monitoring so that scientists map the virus march across continents and detail its multipronged attack on the world. “We genomes of researchers and public health laboratories around the world in six continents,” says Joel House, associate professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego. “It offers us a unique insight and confidence that other types of epidemiological data simply can not provide.” Citing GISAID next train sequences has a virtual water hole are for scientists and health officials increasingly public trends and patterns in the virus indicate genetic changes to inform decisions about can help manage these infections. If the genetic sequencing is a new language for the management of infectious disease outbreaks, so the mutations that the virus produces, is the alphabet. When combined with information about patients as being infected in terms of symptoms and the severity of their disease may undergo monitoring reveal genomic information are linked to the virus strains to severe disease. It could be due to the mystery of why some victims of the virus are illuminating spared long hospital and dangerous disease for life. As nations begin to open again, and before a vaccine is widely used as genetic Intel could plan better in health care when and where they need intensive care facilities to treat new cases in their communities for help. Genetic information is also important to develop more effective vaccines and drugs. to know the sequence of SARS-CoV-2, Modern Thera peutics-turn shot ready for human tests to produce in record time: only two months when the genetic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 was first released. It is also approved for a vaccine and distributed additional genetic changes in SARS-CoV-2-track to ensure that it is not mutated vaccine-induced immunity be crucial to resist. Data from next train collected his research is vital to help combat vaccine mutations that may be for years to come. Already, the group recommends the WHO on the best genetic targets for the annual flu shot, and is planning the same for COVID-19 to do. “We are able to monitor in particular the areas of the virus from the vaccine and control mutations,” says Emma Hodcroft University of Basel, the first train co-developed. “We can predict how disruptive these mutations to the vaccine or not, and say whether the vaccines need to be updated.” Meanwhile, it provides genetic monitoring of real-time data on where the virus is and how to change it. “This is the first time during an outbreak that many researchers and institutions use different set of sequencing data,” says Barbara Bartolini, a virologist at the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, in sequence in dozens of virus samples from patients Italy. This information will give you the public health experts more detailed information about the whereabouts of their viral enemy that no traditional disease monitoring method can offer. After Diaz of the patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, Washington State public health officials diligently pursued the places the patient had been and the people that would come in contact. It was a ride-share went to the airport to and from the work done enjoyed lunch at a seafood restaurant near his office with colleagues. But because there was so little known virus at the time, this contact tracers have focused primarily on people with symptoms of the disease and at the moment none of the contacts of the patients reported. Genetics, however, told a different story. Seattle has happened, has launched a program in 2018 to prosecute cases of life influence by collecting samples from patients in hospitals and doctors’ offices, sites at universities, homeless shelters, the main international airport and also the volunteers of the city, symptoms that outside agreed, nose pads steps to home. Those who were positive for influenza and other respiratory diseases have been genetically sequenced their samples to track diseases spread in the community. As COVID-19 began to appear in the Seattle area in late February, Bedford and his colleagues began testing samples collected in this program for SARS-CoV-2, regardless of whether people have reported symptoms or trip China, therefore the world hot spot for the virus. That’s how WA2 found the first case in Washington that was not travel-related. Comparing the samples WA1, WA2 and other COVID-19 cases, they realized that SARS-CoV-2 occurs widely in the population in February. is when the sequencing community-based work has been carried out earlier, there is a good chance that the cases of COVID-19 could have picked that traditional implementation methods for monitoring disease currently only focus on the history of travel and symptoms, unanswered. What officials to make earlier decisions on a block and may have helped limit the spread of the virus contributed. SARS-CoV-2 moves quickly, but changed relatively slowly for the generation of viruses each month in its genome, only about two mutations. For drug and vaccine developers, it means that the virus continues to be, may withdraw before new treatments aimed to limp. The same changes serve as passport stamps for its trekking around the world through the world’s population, the virus travel itinerary laying down for geneticists as Bedford. The cases in the Seattle initial group, he says, seem to all have been linked by a single launch directly from China to the United States in mid to late January. By the end of February, most cases of SARS-CoV-2 in the United piggyback on unsuspecting travelers from China. But as the pandemic continues, it changed. Genetic analysis confirmed that on February 26, the SARS-CoV-2 had already reached a new milestone with the first documented case that has been successfully jumped to a new host in Santa Clara, Calif., A journey with no history of infectious diseases, while the hot spots in China or known contact with someone who had traveled there. It is not clear how that person is infected, but genetic sequencing has shown that these patients passed the virus to two health workers, while in the hospital and treated the virus has already spread in the community, without the help of imported cases, the team Bedford It started mutations in samples from Seattle who mixed samples from people in Europe and the east coast of the United States to see. “At first we were a bit ‘of a direct line of virus moves to China to viruses that circulate in the circular area of ​​Seattle,” says Bedford. “Later, we see that China has picked up some virus mutations that were then seen in Europe, and the same mutations were observed in virus in New York. So we can draw another line from China to Europe to New York “and then to Seattle. The virus had begun several attacks in the US in the world, virologists have seen similar stories written in the SARS-CoV-2 genes. In January, a pair of Hubei Province arrived in Rome to take enthusiastically to the attractions of the historic European city. By 29 January, they were in Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases with fever and respiratory problems for the hospital. Tests have confirmed that were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Bartolini, a virologist at the hospital, and his colleagues compared the genetic sequences written taken from a sample from the woman to the sequences at GISAID. The Italian researchers found that it has found another five samples of patients as far away as France, Taiwan, United States and Australia. SARS-CoV-2 was clearly already in a world tour. Not all strains of SARS-CoV-2 are the same virulent; some branches of his tree genetics are likely to grow larger and sprout offshoots continue, while others end quickly, says Harm van Bakel, assistant professor of genetics and genome sciences at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. His team conducted the first genetic sequencing analysis of cases in New York, which quickly became a hot spot in the United States; in March the city of half a dozen introductions separately had SARS-CoV-2 to see, but only two consecutive massive spread of the virus. The rest fizzled without transferring air. In retrospect, there is no way to tell for sure if these two strains were just at the right time in the right place, especially densely populated area of ​​the city, for example, or in an area where people scattered collected and then spread to other parts of the city ​​or if it actually is more contagious. But the genetic code can determine a virus circulating soon help scientists and governments decide which strains are worth it or not. gene sequences of 36 samples from patients in Northern California, Dr. Charles Chiu, a professor of laboratory medicine and infectious diseases at the University of California, San Francisco said that the analysis would be possible to identify the main circulating strains and the track as if further tests were on hand to learn about the propagation infecting -and was using this information to quarantine and containment of conduct practices. “There is a window of opportunity was that if we had more evidence and more features contact-tracing available at the beginning, we had the virus to gain a foothold, at least probably prevented in California,” he says. There have been similar missed opportunities in Chicago, where the genetic sequencing of the virus showed that 88 the outbreak of three major tribes. One was circulating like in New York; one was distributed closely with cases involving Washington and a third do not significantly outside the Chicago area. This suggests that the more severe helped limit of travel restrictions could introduce the virus and transmission in northern Illinois. Ongoing genetic sequencing can reduce the spread to quell civil servants help narrower Schneider strategies of a virus. E ‘was opened not long in Beijing after two months once again block the infection started again slowly in June. The sequencing of new cases has shown that viruses currently circulating virus shared similarities in patients in Europe have found, suggesting that launches SARS-CoV-2 and non-persistent viruses were from the original outbreak. That it helped the Chinese government to implement limited closures decided and test people in some apartment blocks to a grocery store, where the group of cases has risen, rather than resort to a whole town quarantine. And there are other less obvious ways possible genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 help predict peaks of cases present themselves as people from Lockdown. Italians scientists wastewater treatment plants in the northern city championships where the pandemic has flourished, and found evidence of SARS-CoV-two weeks before the first cases appeared to flood the hospitals. In La Crosse, Wis., Paraic Kenny, director of the Cancer Research Institute in Kabara Gundersen Health System, applied the same strategy in his native city in the spring. A few weeks later, in mid-June, when cases of COVID-19 because of the pink bars reopened in downtown La Crosse, against Kenny samples from people infected with viral genomes in its wastewater samples. They were a genetic match. The same strain of SARS-CoV-2 was in municipal weeks into service before that have been reported. “In principle, an approach like this can not only be used to determine the amount of virus in the community, but perhaps provide hospitals and public health departments Notified When anticipating an increase in cases,” he says. The goal is to know not only where we are today, but where we have one or two weeks from now. It is 100 years since pushed for an infectious disease, the entire world population into the ground to the point that COVID-19 has. And the primary approaches we make today thresholds Fighting microbes are centuries old quarantine, hygiene and social distancing. We will never know exactly where SARS-CoV-2 came, and it is clearly too late to prevent, that a global tragedy to become. But extraordinary advances in scientific knowledge have given us new tools, such as genetic sequencing, for a more complete understanding of this virus than any other decade or two ago would have imagined. These already offer guidance on emerging viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 work and the way they are frustrated with more effective drugs and vaccines more important. This knowledge can save millions of lives on the policy-as long as the science leads. As unprecedented as this pandemic appears in both reach and speed, if the world were not surprised. For decades, scientists have warned that the thresholds zoonotic virus a threat to humankind of the largest in size. “People continue to use the unprecedented term. I’m telling you, biological

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